Ropevine Clematis

Clematis pauciflora

Overview

Overview                     

Ropevine clematis, or virgin’s bower (Clematis pauciflora), a relative of the popular garden clematis, is a woody vine of the coastal sage scrub and chaparral. It uses any convenient shrub for support, growing through and over it to reach the sun. When in bloom, clematis transforms unremarkable host plants into masses of creamy blossoms. Each clematis seed bears a long, feathery plume. The mature, fluffy seed heads are as spectacular as the flowers and give rise to one of the common names: “old man’s beard”.

 

                                                               When Mary left us here below
                                                               The Virgin's Bower began to blow

                                                                                         (old German couplet)

 

                      

Description

Description 2,59

Our native clematis (ropevine clematis or virgin's bower) is a perennial woody vine 6-12 feet (2-4 meters) in length that uses sturdy shrubs of the chaparral and sage scrub for support.  Leaves are opposite, pinnately compound, composed of 3 to 5 leaflets. Leaflets are generally lobed and toothed. Vines cling to their support by means of the leaf petioles that coil around supporting branches.

Flowers are either male or female. According to the literature, both may be found on the same plant, but our plants (those that we have examined) tend to be unisexual. Male and female flowers are very similar in appearance. Flowers are white or cream-colored, occasionally buttery-yellow. They are 1/4 - 1/2 inches (0.5 to 1.5 cm) across and are born in clusters of one to three on stalks from the leaf axils. Petals are absent and sepals assume the appearance of petals. There are four (sometimes five or six) sepals, radially arranged. Older sepals curl under and soon drop. Most of the flower consists of a spray of up to 50 stamens or pistils. Pistils emerge from a ring of stamens which appear to be infertile (but we could not confirm this). Peak bloom time is January - June.1

Flowers are attractive, but the show starts when the seeds develop. Each seed is attached to a long, curved, feathery tail. Together they turn ripe seed clusters into soft, fluffy globes.

              

Other Common Names: 
virgin's bower, few flowered clematis, clematis

Distribution

Distribution

Ropevine clematis is native to southern California, Baja California and northwestern Mexico.89 It occurs primarily in chaparral below 4000 feet.7

In the Reserve, ropevine clematis may be found in the chaparral on hills above the trails of both Central and East Basin and occasionally in the sage scrub along the main south-side trail.
   

   
 

This plant occurs primarily in the following vegetation types in the San Elijo Lagoon Ecological Reserve: 
Chaparral
Coastal sage scrub

Classification

Classification 2,59,11

Ropevine clematis is a dicot angiosperm in the Buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). This is an extremely variable group with a world-wide distribution. Flowers may show primitive characteristics. In the case of Clematis species, these include radial symmetry, variable number of sepals, unfused flower parts and numerous stamens and pistils.143 This family contains many important garden plants, such as larkspur, columbine, anemones and many species and cultivars of the genus Clematis.

Three similar species of Clematis are native to southern California. Only one has been reported from the Reserve, but it is not unlikely that the others, especially chaparral clematis (C. lasiandra) are also here.

              

  

Ecology

Ecology (139, 140)

Plants in dense vegetation types, like chaparral, must either be shade-adapted or compete with their neighbors for sunlight. Many plants produce woody support structures - trunks and branches and twigs  - that lift their leaves into the light. These however require energy to produce and maintain tissues that contribute little to photosynthesis and reproduction. Vines "borrow" support from other plants. Without the need to produce their own structure, they can grow more rapidly.

Ropevine clematis is a woody vine: it has "hedged its bets" a bit, sacrificing some growth for enough woody tissue to support itself as a small bush should its major support fail. Mostly clematis is found leaning on and growing through larger shrubs. It attaches to its support by means of petioles (leaf stems) which twine around any slim solid object they encounter. Clematis is usually found with its supporting partner.

               

Human Uses

Human Uses

Although all parts of the plant are reported to be mildly toxic,7 the Kumeyaay devised a method to use the bark as a remedy for fever.100 The similar and more widely distributed chaparral clematis (C. lasiandra) was used topically by Chumash for skin eruptions and ringworm.15

Clematis is an important garden plant. The International Clematis Society142 describes one collection with more than 500 different varieties of clematis species.

              

Interesting Facts

Interesting Facts 141                             

As a group, the species of clematis have acquired many common names such as "rope vine", "love vine", "old man's beard" "smokewood" and "snow-in-harvest". The Spanish called it barba de chiva, or "goat's beard".15 While some of these names are self-explanatory, the origin of the most universal name,
"virgin's bower" is debated. Some think that it was named after Queen Elizabeth I, the "Virgin Queen"; others that it was named after the Virgin Mary. According to a German legend, clematis sheltered Mary and Jesus during their flight into Egypt.

The genus name, Clematis, comes from the Greek word meaning long, supple branches.21

           

Photos

male flowers; Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); March 2008
female flower;  Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); Feb. 2015
male flower;  Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); March 2013
female flower;  Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); Feb. 2015
male flower;  Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); March 2011
female flower (3X);  Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); Feb. 2015
male flower; East Basin, south side (Santa Florencia overlook); Feb. 2012
female flower; East Basin, south side (Santa Carina trailhead); Feb. 2015
male flower;  Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); Feb. 2015
male flower;  Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); Feb. 2015
male flower;  Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); Feb. 2015
male flowers;  Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); Feb. 2015
 Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); Feb. 2015
twining leaf stalk provides support; East Basin, south side (Santa Florencia overlook); Feb. 2015
developing seed heads; March 2005; photo courtesy of Barbara Wallach
developing seed heads; April 2010; photo courtesy of Barbara Wallach
mature seed heads; East Basin, south side (Santa Helena trailhead); June 2011
mature seed heads; East Basin, south side (Santa Carina trailhead); May 2009
East Basin, south side (Santa Carina trailhead); Feb. 2015
 Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); Feb. 2015
 Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); Feb. 2015
vines blooming in the chaparral; East Basin, south side (Santa Helena trailhead); Feb. 2015
vines blooming in the chaparral; East Basin, south side (Santa Helena trailhead); Feb. 2015
rust occasionally infects our clematis; Central Basin, south side (Rios trailhead); March 2013
cluster of mature seeds; East Basin, south side (Santa Carina trailhead); April 2015